THE revived study of antiquity which had taken so deep a root in Florence, soon began to exert its influence upon the development of painting ; but during the first half of the fifteenth century, Christian traditions remained supreme in art, modified as they were by the closer study of nature and broader conceptions of human life that prevailed. Even the Platonic philosophy, which found so congenial a home among the humanists of the Medici’s immediate circle, tended towards Christian idealism, and men like Marsilio Ficino and Pico della Mirandola were at pains to prove that the doctrines of Christ and Plato were one and the same. With all their love of pleasure, the Florentines were essentially a serious, deep-thinking race ; and never were ideas more freely expressed in art, never were sculptors and painters more profoundly influenced by religious motives, than at this period. The expression of thought and emotion, rather than perfection of form, was Donatello’s aim, and the purest spiritual feeling animated Luca della Robbia’s art. Above all, it was in the work of a contemporary painter and a protégé of the Medici, the Dominican artist, Fra Angelico, that the deepest mysteries and highest aspirations of Christian truth found their most complete and beautiful expression.
All the mystic thought of the medioeval world, the passionate love of God and man that beat in the heart of St. Francis, the yearnings of Dante’s soul after a higher and more perfect order, the poetic dreams of the monks who sang of the Celestial Country, are embodied in the art of Angelico. The depth and sincerity of his own religious feeling lent wings to his imagination, and the exquisite purity of his soul breathes in every line of his painting. It is the in-tensity of his own love and sorrow that weeps with Dominic at the foot of the Cross, or gazes with Francis in unspeakable longing on his dying Lord: it is his own sweet and gentle fancy that brings down these enchanted visions of Paradise. Vasari’s eloquent language shows how profound was the impression made upon his age by this friar, whose saintly life was reflected in his works, and whose simple and child-like faith supplied the inspiration of his art.
” This truly angelic father spent his whole life in the service of God and his fellow-creatures. He was a man of simple habits, and most saintly in all his ways. He kept himself from all worldliness, and was so good a friend to the poor that I think his soul must be already in heaven. He worked continually at his art, but would never paint anything excepting sacred subjects. He might have been a wealthy man, but he did not care for money, and used to say that true riches consist in being content with little. He might have enjoyed high dignities, both in his convent and in the world, but he, cared nothing for these things, saying that he who would practise painting has need of quiet, and should be free from worldly cares, and that he who would do the work of Christ must live continually with him. He was never known to be impatient with the brothers a thing to me almost incredible I and when people asked him for a picture, always replied that with the Prior’s approval he would try and satisfy their wishes. He never corrected or re-touched his works, but left them as he first painted them, saying that such was the will of God. He never took his pencil up without a prayer, and could not paint a Crucifixion without the tears running down his cheeks. And the saints which he painted are more like saints in face and expression than those of any other master. And since it seemed that saints and angels of beauty so divine could only be painted by the hand of an angel, he was always called Fra Angelico.”
But although this angelic painter Angelicus Pictor, as he is termed by a Prior of Santa Maria Novella, who wrote in his life-time was in sympathy with many forms of mediaeval thought, it would be a mistake to suppose that he was a reactionary who carried on Giottesque traditions into the fifteenth century. When he entered the Dominican Order, at twenty, he had already served his apprenticeship in Stamina’s shop, and had been closely associated with the leaders of the new movement. The sculptor Nanni di Banco, the precursor of Donatello and assistant of Brunellesco, was his intimate friend, and through him the young, painter must early have been familiar with the aims and ideas of these men. At the same time he was brought into contact with Lorenzo Monaco, whose methods of colouring he adopted, and whose example may have decided him to enter the cloister.
Fra Angelico was born in 1387, at Vicchio, in Val Mugello, not far from Giotto’s home. His real name was Guido, but when, in 1407, he took the vows and entered the convent of Fiesole, he became known as Fra Giovanni. His younger brother Benedetto, who joined the Dominican Order on the same day, was not an artist but a skilled penman, who wrote out chaunts and services in the Office-books of the convent, and was Prior of San Marco when he died in 1448. The two brothers were sent to spend their noviciate at the Dominican house of Cortona. Here they were joined a year later by the whole community, who left Fiesole by night, and remained in exile during the next ten years, rather than acknowledge the schismatic Pope Alexander V., whose claims were supported by the Signory of Florence. During these ten years Fra Angelico painted a series of frescoes in the convent at Cortona, which were destroyed during the French occupation, as well as several altar-pieces. Three of these are still in existence: a Madonna and Saints, and a delicately coloured predella of the miracles of St. Nicholas at Perugia, another Madonna in S. Domenico, and the Annunciation in the Gesu at Cortona. In these Angelico shows himself to be the ablest and most advanced of all Stamina’s scholars. The perspective of his buildings and the proportions of his figures are decidedly better than those of Masolino’s Castiglione frescoes, while the shimmering gold of his glories and the decorative splendour of his draperies recall Lorenzo Monaco. Both of these monastic painters are remarkable for the brilliancy of their colour and extraordinary richness of their gilding. They gave their best to God, and spared neither time nor pains to make their offering worthy of the sacrifice. In this Annunciation, Angelico’s first version of his favourite subject, the Angel’s wings are gold tipped with ruby light, and his robe is a marvel of decorative beauty, studded all over with little tongues of flame, and embroidered with mystic patterns. Like the Camaldoli friar, he had a genuine love of nature, and beyond the graceful columns of the classic portico where Gabriel alights and the startled Virgin drops her book, we see the ripe pomegranates hanging on the trees, and the pinks and roses flowering in the grass, while a view of Lake Thrasymene, as seen from Cortona, is introduced in the Visitation of the predella. Although during these ten years Angelico was away from Florence, and could not profit by the rapid advance that was being daily made by artists in every direction, it is clear that he had already assimilated many of the new ideas of the Quattrocento, and stood in the front rank of living masters.
In 1418, the papal schism was ended by the election of Martin V., and the Dominicans returned to their old home at the foot of the hill of Fiesole. From that time Fra Angelico worked with untiring industry at his art, and painted most of the altar-pieces which have made his name famous for the churches and con-vents of Florence. A ruined fresco of the Crucifixion and a Madonna, partly restored by Lorenzo di Credi, are the only fragments of his work now to be seen at S. Domenico of Fiesole; but the lovely predella of Christ in Glory formerly attached to this picture, now hangs in the National Gallery, and the Coronation, which hung over a side altar in the convent church, is one of the glories of the Louvre. In this last-named work Angelico has lavished the richest ornament and the most radiant colour on the angels who stand before the throne, each with a spark of fire on his forehead and glittering stars on his purple wings. The broad flight of steps leading up to the throne of Christ heightens the solemnity of the imposing ceremonial, and the long sweep of the Virgin’s flowing mantle gives an air of youthful charm and lovely humility to her kneeling form. Foremost among the hosts of the blessed are St. Louis, with crown and fleur-de-lis, St. Thomas Aquinas, with rays of light issuing from his book, St. Dominic, with the star on his brow and the lily in his hand, fixing his eyes in adoring love on the face of Mary ; and on the right a group of virginmartyrs Agnes with her white lamb, Katharine with her wheel, and Magdalen in red robes, with long yellow locks, and the vase of precious ointment in her hand. ” So, and no otherwise, do the blessed saints appear,” exclaims Vasari, in his enthusiasm, ” could we see them in their place in Heaven ! But the expression on their faces and the colour of their robes could only be painted by a saint or angel like them-selves ! ” The employment of flat tones and pure colour, the absence of shadow and lavish use of gold with which Angelico seeks to represent the glories of heaven, give the picture a primitive air ; but the care-fully thought-out space-construction and structure of the figures show a degree of scientific knowledge little inferior to Masaccio’s own. Another smaller, but hardly less beautiful, Coronation was painted by Fra Angelico for the hospital of S. Maria Nuova an institution closely connected with the Dominicans of San Marco and is now in the Uffizi. Here we have the same bright seraphin, with flower-like faces and rainbow wings, the same shadowless draperies and glories of burnished gold. But the Madonna is throned at her Son’s side in a blaze of light, and angels dance on the rosy clouds, and swing censers or play the harp and organ at her feet.
Another subject which Fra Angelico often repeated was the Last Judgment. One version which he painted for Lorenzo Monaco’s convent of the Angeli is now in the Accademia; another passed from the collection of Cardinal Fesch into that of Lord Dudley, and is now at Berlin. These pictures show at once the limitations and the rare qualities of the saintly Dominican’s art. The passions and emotions of ordinary humanity lay beyond the guarded precincts of convent life, and stirred no interest in his breast. He would have had no compassion for Francesca’s sorrow or Paolo’s love, and his rendering of the solemn Dies Ira, with the grotesque little demons dragging sinners down to hell-fires, fails to inspire us with either pity or terror. But Dante’s dream of the happy spirits who circle hand in hand on the flowery meadows of Paradise has never been more perfectly realised than in Angelico’s pictures. This is the Urbs beata of the mediaeval poet’s song, the heavenly Jerusalem where the walls are made of jasper, and the light streams from the golden gates. There the leaf never withers and the flowers never fade. There none are sick and none are sad. The mourner’s tears are dried, and the lost and loved are found again. There friends long parted clasp hands once more, and angels welcome holy souls to their embrace ; while lilies and roses, daisies and bluebells, blossom in the shining grass, and in the words of the Franciscan poet, Jacopone da Todi : ” Tutti danzan per amore.”
Yet more famous is the Tabernacle which Angelico painted in 1433, for the Guild of Linen Merchants. The colossal Virgin and Child in the central panel were ill-suited to his style of art, and lack the inspired grandeur of Giotto or Orcagna, but the twelve seraphs playing lute and viol, or sounding trumpets and cymbals on the wings, are among his most popular creations. Even here, however, he is less at home than in his smaller works, such as the reliquaries with Madonnas and Annunciations which he painted for Santa Maria Novella, and which are now preserved in San Marco. The same charming fancy and jewel-like finish mark the predellas which he executed, such as the Sposalizio and Death of the Virgin, in the Uffizi, or the Christ in Glory of the National Gallery. Even when the theme is one of death and bloodshed, he tells the tale with such naive sincerity and, rare beauty of expression, that we forget the horror of the scene, and only realise the martyr’s triumph. In his Death of St. Mark, in the Accademia, or Beheading of Cosimo and Damiano, in the Louvre, he enlivens the subject with picturesque details of costume or architecture, and introduces tall cypresses and castellated walls on the green hillside behind the executioner, in the act of swinging his sword to strike off the Saint’s head. In his lovely picture of the Meeting of Francis and Dominic, at Berlin, Angelico has, by a happy inspiration, placed the scene in front of the church of Assisi, and introduced the fair Tiber valley and steep ridge of Monte Subasio in the distance. No doubt these regions were familiar to him during the years that he spent at Cortona, and, although a friar of the rival Order, no painter had a deeper reverence for St. Francis, or was inspired with a larger share of his tender love and glowing devotion than Fra Angelico. The frequent repetition on these small panels of the story of Cosimo and Damiano is explained by the fact that these Saints were patrons of the Medici family, whose chief representative, Cosimo, had been one of Fra Giovanni’s earliest patrons. After his return from exile in 1434, one of Cosimo de’ Medici’s first acts was to obtain the convent of San Marco for the Dominicans of Fiesole, and to employ his favourite architect, Michelozzo, to rebuild this ancient house of the Silvestrine monks. In 1436, the friars took possession of their new home, and Fra Angelico began the great work of his life, the decoration of the convent-walls.
The Chapter-house contains the large Crucifixion which, in spite of the injuries it has suffered, and of the total disappearance of the once blue sky, is still one of the most impressive pictures in the world. The death of Christ on the Cross is here represented, not as an historical event, but as a sacred mystery for the devout contemplation of the Christian believer, and the favourite Florentine Saints and founders of religious orders are introduced among the spectators. On the left we have first the traditional group of the fainting Virgin, supported by the Maries and St. John ; then the Baptist and St. Mark, the protectors of the city and convent, and Cosimo and Damiano, the patrons of the Medici. On the right, Dominic kneels with outstretched arms at the foot of the Cross, and St. Zenobius, St. Jerome, St. Ambrose, St. Benedict, St. Francis, St. Bernard, S. Giovanni Gualberto, the founder of Vallombrosa, S. Romualdo the hermit, and St. Thomas Aquinas and S. Pietro Martire, stand or kneel in different attitudes of adoration. There is no attempt at dramatic representation, but every phase of devotion is set forth with Angelico’s habitual mastery of expression, and the silent passion of love and yearning in the eyes of Francis is finely contrasted with S. Damiano’s uncontrollable burst of anguish. In the venerable form of S. Cosimo, clad in deacon’s dalmatic, we recognise the portrait of Angelico’s friend, the sculptor Nanni di Banco, who had died nearly twenty years before.
In the cloisters, Fra Angelico painted smaller frescoes of the chief Dominican Saints, and above the Forestiera, where travellers were entertained, he set a beautiful lunette of Christ, the yellow-haired Stranger, with pilgrim’s staff and goat-skin, being welcomed by two Dominican brothers, with the inscription : ” Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto me.” The cells on the upper floor, formerly occupied by the monks, are decorated with sacred subjects, chiefly scenes from the life of Christ, intended to assist the devout meditation of the brothers. Many of these were hastily painted, and some are executed by the hand of inferior assistants, while all are badly injured ; but they still retain a great measure of Angelico’s peculiar charm. The study of the nude was unknown to him, and in knowledge of the human form he remains far behind Masaccio ; but his quick perception and inborn sense of beauty of line to a great extent supply the lack of actual knowledge, while his elevation of thought and rare powers of expression are never absent. In the corridor at the head of the stairs is a fresco of the Annunciation, with a Latin inscription inviting all passers-by to say an Ave to the Blessed Mother. Here the slender Corinthian columns of the open loggia were evidently suggested by Michelozzo’s newly-built portico of the Annunziata Church, and through the graceful arches we look out on the convent garden, with daisies in the grass and rose-bushes and tall cypresses behind its wooden paling. The Angel stands with outspread wings as if but just alighted on the ground, and fixes his eyes intently on the Virgin’s face as he delivers his message. His pink robe is edged with gold, and the feathers of his wings are delicately tinted with soft hues of rose and violet, green and yellow. Mary, draped in a long blue mantle and white robe, and seated on a rough wooden stool, folds her hands meekly on her breast, and looks up with sudden awe and wonder at the heavenly messenger. Yet another Annunciation of rare beauty and deep spiritual meaning may be seen in one of the cells on this floor. Here we have neither loggia nor garden, only the bare walls of the cell, while the white-robed Angel stands erect on the threshold, and the Virgin bending in lowly self-oblation, as if offering her whole being in glad obedience to his word. In the scenes of the Childhood and Ministry, the traditional type is generally followed, with a few variations prompted by the painter’s tender feeling. A large Adoration of the Magi, with horses and camels in the procession, adorns the cell reserved by Cosimo de’ Medici for his private use, in order that the great ruler might have this example of the Eastern Kings laying down their crowns at the manger of Bethlehem constantly be-fore his eyes. The Virgin, to whom the Dominican Order paid especial devotion, is introduced in most of the scenes, while St. Dominic is often seen in the corner, devoutly meditating on the Christian mysteries set forth in the picture. The luminous clouds which encircle the form of the newly-baptised Christ deepen the significance of the event, and the lofty stature and outstretched arms of the Master lifted high above the mount, lend a new and impressive meaning to the Apostles’ Vision of the Transfiguration. In the Institution of the Blessed Sacrament, Fra Angelico departs from the Giottesque tradition of the Last Supper, and adopts an old Byzantine form, rarely seen in Italian art, to which he gives a solemn pathos and beauty of the highest spiritual order. In the Agony, Martha and Mary are watching and praying in Gethsemane, while the Apostles slumber, and in the Mocking and Crowning with Thorns, only the hands of the soldiers are seen, while Dominic and the Virgin are introduced in the foreground. The rush of the spirits in prison to meet their deliverer in his Descent into Hades is rendered with a power and movement to which Angelico does not often attain, while the story of the Resurrection has seldom been more simply and touchingly told than in this picture of the white-robed Angel pointing heaven-wards, as he tells the mournful Maries that their Lord is risen, and in the dim twilight of the Easter morning the Christ is seen floating upwards with the flag of victory in his hand.
The great advance that marks these frescoes, both in conception and execution, is still more apparent in the noble altar-piece of the Descent from the Cross, which Angelico painted about the year 1440, for the Church of the Trinità. Here the fine drawing of the dead Christ, and the difficult foreshortening of the disciples who lower the body from the Cross, show how much the painter had learnt from the attentive study of Masaccio’s works ; and sadly as the harmony of the colour has been marred by restoration, nothing can impair the beauty of the conception the reverent tenderness of the disciples, or the deep repose of the dead Christ, with the words, ” Corona glorio” inscribed above his brow. As usual in Angelico’s pictures, the scene of suffering and death is surrounded with loveliness. Bright flowers spring up in the grass at the foot of the Cross, glittering seraphs hover in the air, and between the tall pines and cypresses we see, on one side, the towers and battlements of Florence, on the other, the green slopes and wooded hills of Vallombrosa, in the rich glow of the evening light. The portrait of Angelico’s friend, Michelozzo, the architect of San Marco, may be recognized in the middle-aged man in the black cap, seated on a step of the ladder ; and the pilasters of the richly-carved frame are decorated with exquisitely-painted figures of Dominican and Vallombrosan saints. But the three paintings of Resurrection subjects on the Gothic pinnacles in the upper part are the work of Lorenzo Monaco, who died long before the picture was painted, and were evidently fitted on to the frame at some later period.
All of these works must have been finished by the end of 1446, when Pope Eugenius IV. who had visited Florence, and stayed at San Marco for the dedication of the convent, four years before summoned Fra Angelico to Rome, to paint a chapel in St. Peter’s. Shortly before he left Florence, the painter probably began the interesting series of small panels for the presses of the altar-plate in a chapel, endowed by Cosimo’s son, Piero de’ Medici, in the Annunziata, in the year 1448. These charming little pictures of the life of Christ, so original in their conception, so full of quaint and picturesque touches, were only partly executed by Angelico, and the hand of many different scholars and assistants may be traced in the later subjects, while three panels were certainly the work of Alessio Baldovinetti.
Soon after Fra Angelico’s arrival in Rome, the Pope died, but his successor, Nicholas V., who had held the office of librarian to Cosimo de’ Medici, induced the painter to continue his work, and the Vatican records contain an entry of payments made, in May 1447, to Fra Giovanni of Florence, at the rate of 200 gold ducats a year, for work in a chapel of St. Peter’s, executed by him and his assistant, Benozzo, together with four other artists, since the 13th of March. By June the decoration of the chapel was completed, and Fra Angelico accepted an invitation from the Directors of the Cathedral works at Orvieto, to spend the summer months in that city, and paint the newly-erected Chapel of S. Brizio. For this he was to receive a salary of 200 ducats, seven ducats a month for his assistant Benozzo, and three ducats each for his apprentices, as well as lodging, bread and wine, and the cost of scaffolding and colour. In fulfilment of this contract, Angelico remained at Orvieto till the 28th of September, and, with Benozzo’s help, painted the groups of prophets and Christ in Glory on the triangular compartments of the chapel roof. Then he returned to Rome, where he spent the next three years in decorating the Pope’s Oratory (or Studio, as it is called in the Vatican records), with scenes from the life of St. Stephen and of St. Laurence. These frescoes, which Fra Angelico painted when he was over sixty, reveal an extraordinary advance, not only in technical skill, chiaroscuro and modelling, but in freedom and dramatic power. The sight of the Eternal City, and the fresh experiences of these last years, had given the friar of San Marco a wider vision and more intimate knowledge of humanity than he had ever known before. The women and children who sit at the feet of Stephen, and listen to his impassioned words, the sick and lame who beg alms of Laurence, and the boys struggling play-fully over the coins, have the old grace and charm, together with a life and animation that are altogether new. The classical details of the architecture, the stately columns and sculptured frieze, the statues and mouldings of the cornices, all bear witness to a close study of the antique models which Rome supplied in such abundance ; while the landscape background of the Stoning of Stephen is an evident recollection of the hill country round Cortona, those familiar scenes of the Dominican master’s youth, which he had seen again on his way from Florence. Still more remarkable is the variety of type and individual character in these closing scenes of the Trial and Death of Stephen and Execution of Laurence. The bitter hatred on the faces of the Pharisees, the puzzled and suspicious look of the high priest, the curiosity of the spectators and indifference of the Roman soldiers, are all painted with a sympathy and insight that bring Fra Angelico before us in an entirely new light.
Unfortunately, these frescoes, which reveal the painter in the fulness of his powers, are the only works of his in Rome that have escaped destruction. The chapel which he decorated in the old basilica of St. Peter’s, and the frescoes which he painted in the Dominican Church and Convent of S. Maria sopra Minerva, have all perished, and this oratory of Pope Nicholas in the Vatican alone remains to show that the earlier art of Florence is not unworthy of a place by Raphael’s Stanze.
In 1450, Fra Angelico returned to Florence, and in the following January became Prior of his old convent at Fiesole. He was still there in March 1452, when the citizens of Prato begged his friend, St. Antoninus, Archbishop of Florence, to send the painter to decorate the choir of their parish church. Fra Angelico complied with their request, and was honourably conducted to Prato on the 29th of March. But at the end of a month he returned to Florence, and finally declined the commission. Probably he was recalled to Rome by the imperative command of the Pope. All we know is, that three years later, on the 18th of March 1455, he died in Rome, and was buried in S. Maria sopra Minerva, where Pope Nicholas himself composed the Latin epitaph on his tomb.
HlC JACET VEN : PICTOR. FR : JOC. DE FLOR. ORD : PRED :
Non mihi sit laudi, quod eram velut alter Apelles,
Sed quod lucra tuis omnia, Christe dabam,
Altera nam terris opera extant, altera cuelo ;
Urbs me Joannem flos tulit Etruria:.
” Not mine be the praise if I was another Apelles, but that I gave all I had to Thy poor, O Christ !
” That city which is the flower of Etruria bore me, Giovanni.”
Florence.Accademia: 166. Descent from the Cross.
227. Madonna and six Saints.
234-254. Panels of Life of Christ (in part). 243, 257, 258. Life of SS. Cosimo and Damian).
251. Coronation of the Virgin.
265. Madonna and four Saints.
266. Last Judgment.
281. Madonna and eight Saints.
283. Pietà and Saints.
” Ufiai: 17. Madonna with Angels and Saints, 1433.
1162. Predella of Birth of St. John.
1178. Predella of Sposalizio.
1290. Coronation of the Virgin.
” Museum of S. Marco: Cloisters: FrescoesSt. Peter Martyr, St. Dominic, St. Thomas Aquinas, Christ as Pilgrim, Pietà. Chapter-House : Crucifixion and Saints. Corridor: Annunciation, St. Dominic at foot of the Cross, Madonna and Saints. Cells: 1. Noli me Tangere ; 2. Entombment ; 3. Annunciation; 4. Crucifixion; 5. Nativity; 6. Transfiguration; 7. Ecce Homo ; 8. Resurrection ; 9. Coronation ; Io. Presentation ; Ir. Madonna and Saints ; 15-23, 25 37, 42, 43. Crucifixion ; 24. Baptism ; 26. Pietà;
Florence.Museum of S. Marco: Cloisters: Frescoes (continued )
28. Christ bearing the Cross ; 31. Descent into Hades; 32. Sermon on the Mount ; 33. Betrayal of Judas ; 34. Agony in Gethsemane ; 35. Institution of the Blessed Sacrament ; 36. Nailing to the Cross ; 38. Adoration of the Magi and Pietà. S. Domenico of Fiesole: Madonna and Saints, Fresco of Crucifixion.
Cortona.S. Domenico : Madonna and Saints ; Gesù : Annunciation and predella.
Orvieto.Duomo: FrescoesLast Judgment, Prophets and Angels (in part).
Parma.Gallery: Sala III.: 25. Madonna and Saints.
Perugia.-Gallery: Sala V : 1-8. Altar-pieces.
Pisa.Sala VL 7: Salvator Mundi.
Rome.Corsini Gallery: Sala VIL : 22. Pentecost; 23. Last Judgment ; 24. Resurrection. Vatican Gallery: Madonna and predella. Chapel of Pope Nicholas V.: Frescoes from Life of St. Stephen and St. Laurence.
Berlin.Gallery: 60. Madonna and Saints; 6oA. Last judgment 611. Meeting of SS. Dominic and Francis ; 62. Triumph of St. Francis.
Boston, U.S.A.Mrs J. L. Gardner: Death and Assumption of Virgin.
London.National Gallery: 663. Christ in Glory. Madrid.Gallery: 14. Annunciation.
Munich.Pinacothek: 989-991. Predella, SS. Cosimo and Damiano ; 992. Entombment.
Oxford.University Galleries: 5. Madonna and Saints.
Paris.1290. Coronation of Virgin.
1293. Martyrdom of SS. Cosimo and Damiano.