Art Education – Representation – Senior Grade


The lessons given in Form I, Junior Grade, on the drawing of grasses and flowers are equally suitable for Form I, Senior Grade. As in Illustrative Drawing, better work is to be expected from the senior pupils. Many of the mistakes made by very young pupils are due to lack of muscular control but, as each effort made to draw something well helps to overcome this trouble, there should be a marked difference between the drawings made at the beginning and those made at the end of the first year at school. In Form I, Senior Grade, special attention should be paid to direction, relative position, size, and shape of masses.

Excellent flowers for drawing in the Spring are tulips and daffodils, while the sunflower, California poppy, and salvia in the Autumn make delightful studies.



To get each pupil to express as truthfully as he can, the growth, shape, and colour of the particular daffodil that he is studying.


Coloured chalks.


On each desk a box of coloured crayons and a sheet of 6″ by 9″ drawing paper; one good specimen with flower, long stem, and leaves, to every five or six pupils. Consult the General Introduction for directions regarding the placing of specimens.


The teacher should make rapid sketches to show the class the different positions of the flower. The part of the blossom that is nearest should be sketched first. In the side view, one of the petals is nearer than the flower cup. The teacher selects the yellow chalk and draws this petal in mass. It must be made shorter and broader than those on each side, as it extends toward the person drawing it and is, therefore, noticeably foreshortened. The petals on each side of it are drawn next, then, with a deeper yellow—possibly a yellow-orange crayon—the cup with its crinkly edge is drawn also in mass, and if petal points peep from behind the cup, these are added, as are also any touches of green that show in the petals. In a front view of the flower, the cup is drawn first, and the petals put in radiating from it. Three or four different positions may be roughly shown in a few minutes.

Each pupil now decides which of the sketches on the black-board best represents the flower as he sees it. The black-board sketches are then erased, and the pupils begin their drawings, each putting in, first, a faint green stroke for the direction line of the stem, with its queer little turn at the top and its slight bend backward as though it had braced itself to bear the weight of the blossom. The flower is put in next and, tapering from the petals, the strong green part that peeps from the sheath; then the sheath is made with faint brown strokes tinged with green, and perhaps a little pink is added at the edges. Next, after the attention of the class has been called to the fact that the green leaves grow up beside the stem, not out of it, a long line is drawn for each leaf, to show the direction in which it bends. Long, green strokes are added to the direction line of each leaf till it is made the right width and shape, and a little blue is added to it and to one side of the stem.

As the pupils work, if their drawings are to be truthful, they must hold them off again and again in such a position that each can compare his drawing with the particular daffodil which he is representing, to see if he is making as true a likeness as possible.

The best drawings should be collected and placed at the front, the pupils themselves deciding which is the very best likeness.


When trees are in full foliage, the shape of the mass is clearly defined, and they are much more easily represented than at any other time. For this reason September is a particularly good month in which to begin the study of trees.