Art Education – Design – Junior Grade

Wherever possible, the patterns made by young pupils should be applied to some article constructed by them. Some little practice, however, is necessary, before they can make units that are nearly of a size or can space them at all regularly.

Their first borders may be made with small squares obtained by each pupil folding and creasing a square of coloured paper so as to make sixteen small squares which can be pulled apart easily. A sheet of 6″ by 9″ drawing paper is then folded lengthwise to form four strips. This is separated along the middle crease, forming two separate strips each with a middle crease.

57 Along the crease in one of these strips the little squares are arranged, the pupils moving them along until they look well and are evenly spaced. A great variety of borders may be made by different groupings, spacings, and positions of the squares. Oblongs and triangles may be made from the small squares by creasing and separating and may then be used similarly. Wooden shoe-pegs or small sticks, and such seeds as those of the pumpkin, squash, watermelon, or citron are useful for the same purpose.

While the class is at work, the teacher should go about among his pupils, appreciating what is good and making suggestions where improvement is needed. Each pupil should draw with a coloured crayon the best border he has been able to arrange, as soon as it has been approved of by the teacher.

When a few good borders have been made, a problem in construction calling for the application of a border should be given.




To make a small paper towel and decorate it with a suitable border.


For the teacher and pupils : Each a sheet of 6″ by 9″ drawing paper, a pair of scissors, and a blue or a red crayon.


The teacher, standing in front of the class, gives directions and illustrates what is to be done by doing it with his own sheet of paper.

The drawing paper is laid on each desk the long way across and folded to make four long strips of equal size. The outside fold is well creased and then carefully separated, leaving the sheet of drawing paper three strips wide. This is now placed on the desk the long way up and down, the near edge is folded to meet the back edge, opened out again, and the bottom and top edges in turn folded to meet the middle crease. When the paper is opened out once more, the creases are found to form twelve oblongs. The row of three oblongs at each end is required for the border and fringe of the towel. About two thirds of the length of the space should be taken for fringe and one third for border, or vice versa. The strip that came off the side may be used as a measurer, as its width is two thirds of this space.

The towel is now ready to have the border applied. Only one colour, red or blue, is used for this. The border space may be edged on both sides with a line of colour; between these two lines each pupil arranges a coloured border similar to one he has already made. The fringe is cut to the coloured line, and the towel is completed, producing a result

similar to the illustration.

If another strip is removed from the sheet of drawing paper, the proportions are suit-able for a sideboard scarf or a table runner, for either of which the same sort of decoration is appropriate.

Where the primary room is fortunate enough to possess a dolls’ house, these problems may be worked out in cloth instead of paper. Linen, scrim, cotton voile, even unbleached cotton may be used, and window curtains, table-cloths, hangings for doorways, bed-spreads, or anything similar, required for the furnishing of the dolls’ house may be made by the little designers. Some crayons are manufactured, designs made with which. will stand washing. If these crayons are used and the designs are pressed with a hot iron, the articles decorated by the pupils may be washed without being spoiled.

Other things that may be decorated and different plans for arranging decorative units are shown in the illustrations for this class and also in those given with Form I, Senior Grade lessons.


For the making of all-over patterns the 6″ by 9″ drawing paper may have a 3″ strip removed to make it a 6″ by 6″ square. The paper may be prepared beforehand by the teacher or by one or two members of the class more deft than the average Form I, Junior Grade pupil, or its preparation may form a measuring exercise for a Form I, Senior class.

When the 6″ by 6″ squares are in readiness, each pupil should fold and crease his so as to make sixteen equal squares, to help him to space evenly the unit that is to be repeated.

The unit may be chosen for the class by the teacher, or each pupil may choose his own from a number of suit-able ones suggested by the class and drawn on the board by the teacher. Any of the units already used for borders would be suitable. Others that could be drawn in this class are a round dot, a ring, a lilac leaf, a bud, or other simple form suggested by the pupils. For special purposes, such as the Easter constructive work, units appropriate to the season but not too difficult in shape for the class should be selected.

Any one colour, or any one colour and black, should be used in the colouring of these patterns, so as to allow the pupils a certain amount of individual choice, while using sufficient restraint to prevent their making ugly combinations of colour.